As I don't actually know any official terms for actual lighting effects I have decided to research this topic as I want to find out how the technical terms apply to when taking a photo.
B A C K L I G H T I N G:
light that shines from behind the subject. This is the effect that can make palm trees turn into silhouettes against a sunset
S I D E L I G H T I N G :
It is often used to create mysterious and dramatic portraits. It adds texture and depth to otherwise dull subjects.
D I F F U S E D L I G H T I N G :
This is a technique to soften the incoming light to take away some of the contrast of a good photograph
A R T I F I C I A L L I G H T I N G:
Is from a wide range of forms. Ranging from the flash setting on a camera to the. Unless you are using a black and white film regular indoor lights will often give the photos a yellow cast.